Most children at one time or the other suffer from minor ailments. The parents should keep at home a stock of some essential medicines needed for minor ailments. However, in cases of prolonged sickness, consultation with a pediatrician is a must.
If a child has fever, it may be due to exposure to extreme cold or extreme hot weather or it may be a warning of some infection developing in the body. If the fever is due to exposure then a dose of acetaminophen repeated after every four to six hours will help. In case of fever due to infection, may be of stomach or throat, treatment of infection is necessary. Often in case of high fever parents try to cover/wrap the chid with heavy clothes or blankets, this is not advisable. Keep the child at normal room temperature and cover him with a light blanket.
If the child is suffering from stomach infection, he will have vomiting and diarrhoea. Keep a strict control on the diet. It is advisable to refrain from giving the child milk products and water should be properly boiled. A viral infection will last longer than a bacterial infection. Suggested doses of antibiotic medicines may be given. Sometimes due to loss of large quantity of water, there are chances of dehydration. The child should be given electrolytic drink at regular intervals, even if it is a spoonful at a time. Once the child is able to retain something you can give fruit juice or gelatine.
Cough and cold are other common diseases which the child contacts easily especially during changing weather. A large number of over the counter child safe cough syrups are available in the market, as over the counter drugs. Prescribed dose of these syrups can be administered to the child. For sore throat you may need to give some antibiotic to the child. The dose will depend upon the age. If the child also develops fever, a dose of medicine to reduce fever will be necessary. Slowly the child will start recovering.
Often the child falls down while playing and develops bruises. Immediately wash the affected part with clean running water using some mild soap. After wiping it dry cover it with lint or band aid. If the wound is deep apply some antiseptic cream.
Sometimes the child may complain of pain in ear. This may be caused due to some infection or the child may have got hurt while playing. For infection you will have to contact a specialist. For immediate relief, heat a pad of clean cloth and put it on the affected ear. Other common ailments can be pain in stomach, headache or body aches. Treat them with common medicines available in your first aid box. However in extreme cases a visit to a doctor is a must.